Balance is created in a work of art when textures, colors, forms, or shapes are combined harmoniously. In this image, notice how the photographer achieves a sense of balance by dividing the image into two sections: one half occupied by trees, and the other half by the water.
Contrast is the use of elements of design that do not seem to go together to hold the viewer's attention and to guide the viewer's eye through the artwork by creating visual tension. In an image, elements that are quite different show contrast.
Movement is the way a viewer's eye is directed to move through a composition, often to areas of emphasis. Movement can be directed by lines, contrasting shapes, or colors within the artwork.
Emphasis or focus is created in a work of art when the artist contrasts colors, textures, or shapes to direct your viewing towards a particular part of the image.
Pattern is the repetition of a shape, form, or texture across a work of art.
Rhythm is the repetition of pattern to create the expectation that the pattern will continue.
Proportion & Scale is created when the sizes of elements in a work of art are combined harmoniously. Sometimes changes in Scale - making large things small or large things small - can change or perceptions.